The Great Fluoridation Fraud
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
Freiburg, Germany, smelters begin compensating their neighbors for fluoride smoke-damaged vegetation.
Frederick McKay, East Coast dental school graduate notices grotesque brown stains on his patients’ teeth in Colorado Springs. It became known as Colorado Brown Stain. (ref. Portland Tribune, History on the side of fluoride opponents. Thu., Feb. 14, 2013.)
Freiburg, Germany, confirmed, that fluoride smoke from smelters there had poisoned nearby cattle.
Dentists Black and McKay carefully list the characteristics of tooth deformities they called mottled (fluorosed) teeth, later to be termed 'Texas Teeth' and 'Colorado Brown Stain'. (Yiamouyannis, p. 41.)
Frederick McKay travels to Oakley, Idaho, "to meet with parents there about brown stains on their children’s teeth. McKay advised town leaders to find a new source of drinking water. That did the trick, though he didn’t know why." (ref. Portland Tribune, History on the side of fluoride opponents. Thu., Feb. 14, 2013.)
A Manual of Pharmacology and its application to therapeutics and toxicology, Sanders Co, Medical Information, states that Sodium Fluoride is a general protoplasmic poison.
Meuse Valley air pollution disaster in Belgium kills 60 and injures several thousand caused by fluoride.
Concern about the problem of mottled teeth led three independent groups of scientists to determine, in 1931, that fluoride in the drinking water was the cause of dental mottling. (Yiamouyannis, p. 41.)
Alcoa chemist H.V. Churchill advises Frederick McKay to test the water in many towns for the Fluoride ion content. (ref. Portland Tribune, History on the side of fluoride opponents. Thu., Feb. 14, 2013.)
Machoro (Italy) uses sodium fluoride in the successful treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Wilhelm May, Germany, starts fluoride therapy in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, using calcium fluoride tablets, topical ointments, etc.
Animal injury [to cattle] was ... found near an Italian aluminum plant.
DeEds F., Fluorine in Relation to Bone and Tooth Development, JADA, 23, 1936, p 574.
Fluorine is a general protoplasmic poison, but the most important symptoms of chronic fluorine poisoning known at present are mottling of the teeth and interference with bone formation.
... scientists found health problems inside a Norwegian aluminum smelter, where workers suffered sudden gastric pains and vomiting, bone changes, and symptoms resembling bronchial asthma.
Litzka (Germany) discusses the mode of action of fluorides in treating patients with hyperthyroidism: fluoride antagonizes thyroid hormone effects/glycolysis in liver and influences glycolysis in skeletal muscle.
Wilhelm May reports further on his fluoride therapy, including the use of sodium fluoride ointments (up to one year-therapy), and Fluorotyrosin (6 to 8 - week therapy). Also reports on findings that two other common medications given in the treatment of hyperthyroidism - Solvitren and Tyronorman - had been found to contain fluoride, in fact double the amount used in Fluorotyrosin. Further May reports that the traditional areas where people had been sent for “natural therapy” (‘Kur’) were found to contain higher amounts of fluoride in the water.
Kraft (Knoll AG, Germany) investigates inorganic sodium fluoride and organic fluoride compounds fluorobenzoic acid and fluorotyrosine and reports that all fluoride compounds inhibit thyroid hormones. It is a matter of amplification - the fluoride component is essential.
Roholm's monumental 364-page study is published, called Fluorine Intoxication.
Yearbook of Agriculture.
Fluorine interferes with the normal calcification of the teeth during the process of their formation so that affected teeth, in addition to being usually discolored and ugly in appearance, are structurally weak and deteriorate early in life. For this reason, it is especially important that fluorine be avoided during the period of tooth formation, that is, from birth to the age of 12 years.
Schwarz (Germany) prepares fluoride/iodide anti-thyroid medications and combines with sedatives.
Researchers from the US Public Health Service examine the health of residents of Bartlett, Texas to see if the 8ppm fluoride in the drinking water was affecting their health. It was checked again in 1953. They find that the death rate in Bartlett was three times higher than a neighbouring town which contained 0.4 ppm fluoride.
The Journal of the American Medical Association on September 18, 1943, states:
“Fluorides are general protoplasmic poisons, changing the permeability of the cell membrane by inhibiting certain enzymes. The exact mechanism of such actions are obscure. The sources of fluorine intoxication are drinking water containing 1ppm or more of fluorine, fluorine compounds used as insecticidal sprays for fruits and vegetables (cryolite and barium fluoro- silicate) and the mining and conversion of phosphate rock to super phosphate, which is used as a fertilizer. That process alone releases approximately 25,000 tons of pure fluorine into the atmosphere annually. Other sources of fluorine intoxication is from the fluorides used in the smelting of many metals, such as steel and aluminum, and in the production of glass, enamel and brick.”
January 6, 1944. Dr. Paul A. Neal of the National Institutes of Health outlined the critical importance of fluoride to the war economy-and emphasized how little doctors knew about health effects on workers. Aluminum, magnesium, refrigerants, aerosol propellants, insecticides, phosphates for animal feeds, hydrofluoric acid ("especially its use as a catalyst in oil refining"), and the employment of fluoride fluxes among an estimated 150,000 welders were just some of the burgeoning uses for fluoride in the war effort, Neal reported. There was a "definite need," he added, "for careful, thorough investigation on workmen who have been exposed for many years to fluorides. However, it has been postponed until after the war since such an investigation could hardly be made at this time without undue interruption of the output of these industries."5tfd
The conference organizers had made what seemed to be a surprising addition to the guest list: Dr. David B. Ast, chief dental officer of the New York State Health Department. Dr. Ast was then preparing to add sodium fluoride to the drinking water of Newburgh, New York, in a stated bid to improve dental health in children. Although the conference had been secretly arranged by the Manhattan Project - whose industrial contractors were concerned that workers in bomb factories would be poisoned by fluoride - the dental researcher quickly justified his attendance at the conference. Military officials and industrial contractors heard a conference report that "animal tests were of doubtful value" in studying fluoride toxicity in humans, and that there was confusion over amounts that "may cause deleterious effects in adults." Dr. Ast then boldly volunteered a solution.6tfd He suggested that researchers could examine whether fluoride in drinking water was harmful to people, and thereby help to determine whether the chemical posed a risk to workers in factories. 5tfd-6tfd: Bryson, page 81.
The city manger of Grand Rapids, Michigan announces that the Michigan State Department of Health is planning a long range experiment with fluoridated water and that Grand Rapids was selected as the location for the experiment. The city commission approves a motion to fluoridate on July 31, and decide it is to begin in January 1945, despite the warning issued three months earlier by the American Dental Association. Grand Rapids becomes the first city in the United States to conduct this experiment. It was to serve as the test city to be compared against un-fluoridated Muskegon for a period of ten years relative to tooth decay, at which time it would be determined whether or not fluoride was “safe and effective.” Dr. H. Trendley Dean was put in charge of the project. The experiment was terminated early with the pronouncement that fluorides in public water supplies was “safe”.
Oscar Ewing is put on the payroll of the Aluminium Company of America (ALCOA), as an attorney, at an annual salary of $750,000. Within a few months, Ewing was made Federal Security Administrator, with the announcement that he was taking a big cut in salary. The US Public Health Service, then a division of the FSA, comes under the command of Ewing, and he begins to vigorously promote fluoridation nationwide. Ref: May 25-27 Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. A by-product of aluminium manufacture is toxic sodium fluoride. Ewing’s public relations strategist for the fluoride campaign was the nephew of Sigmund Freud, Edward L. Bernays. Bernays conducts a public relations campaign to promote fluorine ingestion by applying Freudian theory to induce public acceptance. It was one of Bernays most successful campaigns.
The Journal of the American Dental Association on October 1, 1944 warned that “We do know that the use of drinking water containing as little as 1.2 to 3.0 ppm of fluorine will cause such developmental disturbances in bones as osteoporosis, and we cannot run the risk of producing such systemic disturbances in applying what at present is a doubtful procedure intended to prevent development of dental disfigurement in children. In the light of our present knowledge or lack of knowledge of the chemistry of the subject, the potentialities for harm far outweigh those for good.”
Accounts of fluoride injury mushroomed as the laboratory work moved into full-scale industrial production. At Oak Ridge in September 1944, 190 pounds of hexafluoride gas escaped into a room, drifted outdoors, and formed a chemical cloud “20 yards by 20 yards.” Nine workers were exposed “for periods of twenty seconds to five minutes,” injuring “the mouth, salivary organs, pharynx, skin, eyes and lungs.”22tfd The news got worse: that same year, 1944, General Groves got shocking new reports of multiple deaths in the nuclear program. Details of those fatalities and fluoride's role have remained hidden, often for a half-century or more.
The stories of the DuPont workers, who may have been fluoride's first wartime fatalities, have not been made public until now. (And they remain anonymous: once-secret military documents describing the deaths do not record their names.) On January 15,1944, a laboratory assistant, a chemist, and "a girl technician" producing the fluorinated plastic Teflon for the bomb program were exposed to waste gases. Shortness of breath followed twelve hours later and "by the end of 36 hours, all three were in the hospital," Colonel Warren was informed.23tfd The chemist recovered but the other two died terrible deaths, turning purple and unable to breathe.24tfd 22tfd-24tfd: Bryson, page 50.
On January 25, 1945 (Bryson, page 86.), Grand Rapids, Michigan [fluoridated]; without health effects measured. ... that study is scientifically dishonest. After five years tooth decay declined equally in Grand Rapids and its control city Muskegon Michigan so Muskegon's water was fluoridated ... http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=597_1201185775
On May 2, 1945 (Bryson, page 83.), Newburgh, New York has their water supply fluoridated. Subsequent exams of the children by x-ray reveal that almost 14% have cortical defects in bone, compared to the nearby unfluoridated town of Kingston, where 7.5% have bone defects. http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=597_1201185775
The Atomic Energy Commission (Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology - headed by Harold Carpenter Hodge, incomprehensibly at the same time also head of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) - acknowledges the German findings that all fluoride compounds - organic or inorganic - inhibit thyroid hormone activity, and declares this issue a research priority. No further research into this issue is conducted, however.
1948, October 29:
Donora, Pennsylvania, air pollution disaster. 21 were killed and many hundreds were injured following a smog that blanketed the mill town over the Halloween weekend. An estimated 6,000 men, women, and children had been sickened, out of a population of 13,500.
Richard May reports on the highly successful use of the organic fluoride compounds Pardinon (IG Farben) and Capacin (Knoll AG) in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Up until 1943, 10,000 patients had been cured.
In 1949, the sugar lobby, the Sugar Research Foundation, said: "We need to find a way to reduce ooth decay without reducing sugar consumption." Then they poured millions of dollars into nutrition departments, in Harvard, Michigan and other places.
As a result of government propaganda on fluorides, the ten year Michigan study was terminated after just over 5 years. The fluoride-free control city, Muskegon, was then fluoridated (apparently to conceal any differential between the two cities).
... researchers reported more bone defects, anemia and earlier female menstruation in [girls] purposely dosed with sodium fluoride-laced drinking water (1956 Journal of the American Dental Association).
The Ontario Court of Appeal prohibits Toronto from fluoridating its water upon a challenge launched by the municipality of Forest Hill, the charge having been led by Reeve Bick. Chief Justice Pickup argues that the existing municipal legislation does not allow the addition of a medicine to the water supply. The majority opinion was written by Justice Ivan Rand.
In the above Forest Hill case, a provincial law allowed municipal corporations to treat public water supplies so as to make the vended water “pure and wholesome.”87
Justice Rand construed this statute strictly, so as to disallow fluoridation.
"But it is not to promote the ordinary use of water as a physical requisite for the body that fluoridation is proposed. That process has a distinct and different purpose; it is not a means to an end of wholesome water for water’s function but to an end of a special health purpose for which water supply is made use of as a means."
Similar language appears in the concurring opinion of Justice Cartwright, regarding the municipal by-law to initiate fluoridation then in question:
"In pith and substance the by-law relates not to the provision of a water supply but to the compulsory preventative medication of the inhabitants of the area. In my opinion, the words of the statutory provisions on which the appellant relies do not confer upon the council the power to make by-laws in relation to matters of this sort."89
Forest Hill expounds principles of natural law jurisprudence, and thereby supplies a cogent idea of health freedom.
... ten years ago Newburgh’s faucets began spouting 1.2 parts per million (ppm) sodium fluoride. Nearby Kingston, New York, the control city for comparison purposes, was left fluoride-free.
... physicians and dentists are “off-labeling” sodium fluoride as a cavity preventive for children ... in much smaller doses than needed to kill rats. Fluoride Dangers
Newburgh-Kingston caries-fluorine study. XIII. Pediatric findings after ten years. Journal Amer. Dental Assoc. 1956 Mar;52(3):296-306. SCHLESINGER ER, OVERTON DE, CHASE HC, CANTWELL KT.
The Supreme Court of Canada, on appeal from the city of Toronto, agreed that water fluoridation exceeded the powers of the existing Municipal Act.
The City of Winnipeg is the first major Canadian city to fluoridate. The measure passes easily, with little opposition.
The systemic actions of fluoride are presumably related to the inhibition of one or more enzymes controlling cellular glycolysis (and perhaps respiration) and to the binding or precipitation of calcium as CaF2. If death is not prompt, systemic symptoms are many and varied. Severe shock is due not alone to gastrointestinal damage but also to central vasomotor depression and to cardiac disturbances.
The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, Gleason, Marion N; Gosselin, Robert E, Hodge, Harold C., pages 143 & 144.
Gordon Sinclair openly challenges the the implementation of fluoridetaion in Toronto.
The government appointed Ontario Royal Commission on fluoridation decided in favour of fluoridation, declaring that it was not a violation of civil liberties but a technical medical issue. Thats exactly what the Courts had decided cities could not do.
Monday, November 15, 1965. City of Ottawa is Fluoridated.
Another major Canadian city, Toronto, is finally fluoridated in spite of much opposition.
Fluoridation launched in New York City. Apart from popular referendum and in the face of continued opposition by handing the choice to the municipality’s five-member Board of Estimate. Behind the final effort to fluoridate were Mary and Albert Lasker. The former was involved in the Committee to Protect Our Children’s Teeth and the latter an advertising executive and associate of Bernays who helped American Tobacco Company make Lucky Strikes America’s best-selling cigarettes.”
James F. Tracy, Associate Professor of Media Studies at Florida Atlantic University.
Journal Archives of Internal Medicine, Dr. Donald Taves, University of Rochester. Documenting high levels of fluoride in the bones of a woman receiving dialysis treatment.
After a referendum backed by a misinformed, vocal and well financed medico-dental lobby group, the City of Edmonton is fluoridated.
November 1968, Dr. Gerald Posen reports his findings of fluoridation's damaging impact on kidney dialysis patients at a meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Not one of [the 100's of Kidney specialists] raised the question whether fluoridation of public drinking water ought to be discontinued. He went home to Canada, located a fluoride filter manufacturer in the town of Hamilton, Ontario, and ordered a set of de-mineralizers to attach to the dialysis baths of artificial kidneys in the Ottawa General Hospital.
January 1969. Dr. Gerald Posen speaks at a meeting of the Royal Canadian College of Physicians and Surgeons at Vancouver, British Columbia.
John Marier, a chemical analyst, National Research Council of Canada, speaks about fluoridation and dialysis, to the Canadian Society for Clinical Investigation, which met at the same time and place.
The Canadian Press correspondent who covered the Vancouver meetings sent CP member editors a dispatch that began:
The artifically-fluoridated water supplies of certain cities may cause unexpected complications in the use of kidney machines to keep alive patients with kidney failure, two Ottawa doctors reported…
Their work in spotting the problem and examining its effects has resulted in a decision in the Ottawa General Hospital not to use the city’s fluoridated water in the kidney-machine treatment.
A study during its occupation by the United States reported on
22,000 school children in Japan (median age 13, range 5-17) showed 90% with
some tooth decay at 0.0 ppm fluoride. This high number was
attributed to the absence of calcium in the water. A minimum in
decay (38% of children) occurred with 0.3 ppm fluoride and more
calcium content. This increased to 44% at 1.0 ppm fluoride and
further to 55% with decay at 3.0 ppm fluoride and still more
calcium (see Figure 3). Japan subsequently reduced the maximum
allowed fluoride level to 0.05 ppm. (Judd GF. Good Teeth Birth to
Death. Glendale, Ariz.: Research Publications Co; 1996)
A 3-year-old Brooklyn boy on his first trip to the dentist is given a lethal dose of fluoride at a city dental clinic and then ignored for nearly five hours in the waiting room of a pediatric clinic and Brookdale Hospital where he died.
Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, PhD, Biochemist, Dr. Dean Burk, PhD, Biochemist, Toxicologist, chief chemist of the National Cancer Institute publish their survey which showed that people in fluoridated areas have a higher cancer death rate than those in non-fluoridated areas.
Spencer County, Indiana, population 18,000, 79 persons living around a fluoride-polluting plant died between January 1 and May 31, 1978, many of them from a disease called "sudden death syndrome." The coroner is convinced that fluoride emissions from the local aluminum plant were to blame.
Supreme Court Justice J.P. Flaherty - former Chairman of the Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences - in a letter to the Mayor of Auckland, N.Z.
“...the evidence is quite convincing that the addition of sodium fluoride to the public water supply at one part per million is extremely deleterious to the human body....
Prior to my hearing this case, I gave the matter of fluoridation little if any, thought but I received quite an education, and noted that the proponents of fluoridation do nothing more than try to impugn the objectivity of those who oppose fluoridation.”
A State Supreme Court jury awarded $750,000 to the parents of a 3-year-old Brooklyn boy who, on his first trip to the dentist in 1974, was given a lethal dose of fluoride at a city dental clinic and then ignored for nearly five hours in the waiting rooms of a pediatric clinic and Brookdale Hospital while his mother pleaded for help, and he lapsed into a coma and died.
Up to 50 parts per million fluoride was dumped into the Annapolis, Maryland public water system. An epidemiological study found that approximately 10,000 people exhibited acute symptoms of fluoride poisoning.
Chief Dental Officer, British Ministry of Health and Social Security, December 11, 1980.
...no laboratory test has ever shown that 1 part per million fluoride in the drinking water reduces tooth decay.
Publication of “Fluoride: The Aging Factor” John Yiamouyiannis, 1st paperback edition, Health Action Press.
Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products report, Williams & Wilkins, declares that Fluoride is more poisonous than lead and just slightly less poisonous than arsenic.
The Rocky Mountain Poison Control Center reported eighty-seven cases of fluoride poisonings in children younger than 12 years of age. Eighty-five cases involved accidental ingestion of fluoride products in the home. Two involved fluoride treatment by a dentist. One l3-month-old child died.
Publication of “Fluoride: The Aging Factor” John Yiamouyiannis, 2nd paperback edition, Health Action Press.
After many failed referenda, the city of Calgary is fluoridated. Calgary had undergone a huge demographic change and it's population had nearly doubled, partially accounting for the success of the campaign to fluoridate, along with the scare tactics and false promises of the dental lobby.
The California Department of Health Services reported that Niagara brand bottled water was found to contain 450 parts per million fluoride. State health director Kenneth Kizer warned that “Consumption of these high levels of fluoride in water could produce stomach ache, nausea, vomiting, serious illness, or even death.”
Dr. John Colquhoun was forced into early retirement in New Zealand after he conducted a study on 60,000 school children and found no difference in tooth decay between fluoridated and unfluoridated areas.
1990 to the present:
Fluoridation being decimated across Canada. See the compilation relating to the gradual elimination of fluoridation across Canada here and below. Over 60 examples of preventing implementation of fluoridation and ending it. Some major victories: 2011, Calgary, Alberta, ends Fluoridation. Voted out February 8, 2011, ended May 18, 2011. 2010, Waterloo, Ontario, voted out October 25, 2010, ended November 29, includes communities of St. Jacobs and Elmira. 2010, Moncton, New Brunswick, votes out fluoridation, includes communities of Riverview, Dieppe, Dec 19, 2011. 2012, Orillia, Ontario, prevents implementation of fluoridation, July 16, 2012.
Akron, Ohio, Regional Poison Center reports: "Death has been reported following ingestion of 16 mg/kg of fluoride." In understandable English, that means that one-hundredth of an ounce of fluoride could kill a 10-pound child and one-tenth of an ounce could kill a 100-pound adult.
Publication of “Fluoride: The Aging Factor” John Yiamouyiannis, 3rd paperback edition, Health Action Press.
Three patients on kidney dialysis die in a Chicago hospital. July 16 1993. These machines are supposed to filter out fluoride to reduce flfuoride from entering the fluids used in purifying kidney patients on dialysis.
Dr. Phyllis Mullenix, PhD, Toxicologist, Pharmacologist, releases her ground breaking research showing how Sodium Fluoride causes hyperactivity when administered to unborn rats in utero via the mother and reduces activity in already born rats not previously exposed, literally turning them into couch potatoes. Her research contract is subsequently not renewed at the Forsyth Dental Institute of Harvard University. She is essentially fired as the Chief Toxicologist and all her research equipment is destroyed.
Mullenix P, Denbesten PK, Schunior A, Kernan WJ. 1995. Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 17(2):169-177. Mar-Apr.
Muller et al demonstrated that 6 nanometres of thickness of enamel (the thickness of a spermatozoa's tail) is created when teeth are brushed with fluoridated toothpaste. This is such a minute depth of protection that as soon as one chews on any food, the 6 nanometres are easily removed. It's not like there's any "glue" holding it in place. It just floats on the surface like a super thin film.
Inside Walkerton: Canada's worst-ever E. coli contamination
E. Coli contamination events timeline.
Walkerton - Five Years After
Lessons learned in the aftermath of Canada's worst E. coli Contamination.
Five years ago, the small, rural community of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada fell victim to a devastating outbreak of waterborne disease that caused seven deaths and more than 2,300 illnesses.
CFB Kingston, Summerside, and other Canadian Forces Bases across the country quietly end tap water fluoridation on health, cost and other concerns, following an executive order from National Defence Headquarters. Article no loger available in The Kingston Whig Standard was titled: “East end water to lose its fluoride” and a May 28, 2008 article said: “Residents in the east end of Kingston should soon be drinking water from their taps that is fluoride free.”
Waterloo, Fluoridation voted out October 25, 2010, ended November 29, 2010, includes communities of St. Jacobs and Elmira.
Calgary, Alberta, ends Fluoridation. Voted out February 8, 2011, ended May 18, 2011.
2011, December 19:
Moncton, New Brunswick, votes out fluoridation, includes communities of Riverview, Dieppe.
Windsor, Ontario: The chair of the Windsor Utilities Commission supports removing fluoride from the city's drinking water. CBC News, May 24, 2012. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/story/2012/05/24/wdr-fluoride-bill-marra.html
New Hampshire House of Representatives vote 253-23 in favor of mandating infant fluoride warnings on all water bills in fluoridated communities.
Heather Gingerich declares: "Fluoridation is Walkerton in slow motion."
2012, July 16:
Orillia, Ontario, prevents implementation of fluoridation, against intense presures to implement from regional health bureaucrats.
2012, October 19:
"In a statement to the Citizen, Ottawa’s medical officer of health Dr. Isra Levy said Ottawa Public Health has reviewed a number of major studies that have examined the issue and concluded that fluoride poses no public health danger." - By Mohammed Adam, Ottawa Citizen, October 19, 2012.
Isn't it time to challenge such an irresponsible statement in a court of law with evidence to the contrary?
Carleton University chemistry professor Bob Burk said "As far as we are aware, there’s no observable effect at these concentrations."
Note the use of the euphemistic words "observable effect" - just because it can not be observed does not mean it does not occur, especially if no one is actually investigating for any "observable effect." There is plenty of contrary proof to that assertion.
Conspiracy Timeline 1940-1947
Fluoride: The Aging Factor, Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, PhD, Biochemistry, Health Action Press (papreback), 1993.
Fluoridation: Autopsy of a Scientific Error - Morin, Graham & Parent, Editins Berger (papreback), 2010.
The Case Against Fluoride - Dr.'s Connett, Beck & Micklem, Chelsea Green, 2010 (papreback).
The Fluoride Deception, Christopher Bryson, Seven Stories Press, 2004, 2006, (papreback).
Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards - National Research Council, U.S.A., 2006 (NRC internet access).
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