Drops of Water Onto Surface of Water
Fluoride Pollution: An Overview
Isn't tap water great? Yes, but many of us can NOT drink it.
Water is for everyone, fluoridation toxins are not

NOW AVAILABLE: The Fluoride Deception (Seven Stories Press, May 2004)

"[A]n exhumation of one of the great secret narratives of the industrial era; how a grim workplace poison and the most damaging environmental pollutant of the cold war was added to our drinking water and toothpaste." (Order a copy today)

"Airborne fluorides have caused more worldwide damage to domestic animals than any other air pollutant." - US Department of Agriculture. Air Pollutants Affecting the Performance of Domestic Animals. Agricultural Handbook No. 380. Revised. 1972. p. 109.

"Certainly, there has been more litigation on alleged damage to agriculture by fluoride than all other pollutants combined." - Weinstein LH. (1983)."Effects of Fluorides on Plants and Plant Communities: An Overview." In: Shupe JL, Peterson HB, Leone NC, (Eds). Fluorides: Effects on Vegetation, Animals, and Humans. Paragon Press. Salt Lake City, Utah. pp. 53-59.

Between 1957 and 1968 "fluoride was responsible for more damage claims against industry than all twenty [nationally monitored air pollutants] combined." - Groth E. (1969). Air is Fluoridated. The Peninsula Observer Jan 27 - Feb 3.




"Workers exposed to a constant intake of fluorine compounds in one form or another should be examined at intervals and temporarily taken away from the work at the first sign of intoxication." - Roholm K. (1937). Fluoride intoxication: a clinical-hygienic study with a review of the literature and some experimental investigations. London: H.K. Lewis Ltd.

"In conclusion, potroom asthma appears to occur in the United States at the studied aluminum smelters. There was a significant statistical relationship between the incidence of asthma and the mean gaseous fluoride exposure in the study population." - Taiwo OA, et al. (2006). Incidence of asthma among aluminum workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48(3):275-82

"A close relationship between the levels of fluoride exposure and work-related asthmatic symptoms has been observed." - Soyseth V, et al. (1994). Relation between exposure to fluoride and bronchial responsiveness in aluminum potroom workers with work-related asthma-like symptoms. Thorax 49(10): 984-989.

"Occupational exposure to fluoride has a harmful effect on the higher functions of the central nervous system, negatively influencing both cognitive and autonomic functioning. There is a definite relationship between the damage caused by fluoride and the level of exposure." - Guo Z, et al. (2001). Study on neurobehavioral function of workers occupationally exposed to fluoride. Industrial Health and Occupational Disease 27:346-348.

"The fluoride exposed workers had a higher frequency of joint pain and stiffness than the control group. This joint pain resulted in disability in some cases." - Boillat MA, et al. (1980). Radiological criteria of industrial fluorosis. Skeletal Radiology 5: 161-165.

"The occupational standard for fluorides in the United States has not changed to any major extent since the late 1940s... Only recently have data become available suggesting not only that these standards have provided inadequate protection to workers exposed to fluorine and fluorides, but that for decades industry has possessed the information necessary to identify the standards’ inadequacy and to set more protective threshold levels of exposure." - Mullenix PJ. (2005). Fluoride poisoning: a puzzle with hidden pieces. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 11(4):404-14.

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"Because, in soft waters with low ionic content, a fluoride concentration as low as 0.5 mg/l can adversely affect invertebrates and fishes, safe levels below this fluoride concentration are recommended in order to protect freshwater animals from fluoride pollution." - Camargo JA. (2003). Fluoride toxicity to acquatic oganisms: a review. Chemosphere 50(3): 251-264.

"An interim water quality guideline of 0.12 mg F/L is recommended for the protection of all stages of freshwater life against the adverse effects of total inorganic fluorides." - Environment Canada. (2001). Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life: Inorganic Fluorides. National Guidelines and Standards Office, Environmental Quality Branch, Environment Canada, Ontario.

"The results of our behavioral experiments suggest that fluoride concentrations of about 0.5 mg/L adversely affect the migration of adult salmon and that 0.2 mg F/L may be near or below the threshold for fluoride sensitivity in chinook and coho salmon." - Damkaer DM, Dey DB. (1989). Evidence for fluoride effects on salmon passage at John Day Dam, Columbia River, 1982-1986. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 9: 154-162.

"Sublethal concentrations may have adverse effects on fish behavior or reproduction, which could be ecologically significant. Research findings are few and not confirmed, but trout eggs seem to be delayed in development and hatching by 1.5 ppm fluoride." - Groth E. (1975). Fluoride Pollution. Environment. 17(3): 29-38.

"Inorganic fluorides at low concentrations in the acquatic environment can elicit slight effects that are statistically and ecologically relevant. Sensitive characteristics for fish include survival, growth, reproduction, and behavioural endpoints." - Environment Canada. (2001). Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life: Inorganic Fluorides. National Guidelines and Standards Office, Environmental Quality Branch, Environment Canada, Ontario.


"Fluoride is the most phytotoxic of the common air pollutants." - Haidouti C, Chronopoulou A, Chronopoulos J. (1993). Effects of Fluoride Emissions from Industry on the Fluoride Concentration of Soils and Vegetation. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 21(2): 195-208.

"Fluorine derivatives are the most aggressive among toxic compounds polluting the atmosphere." - Rozhkov AS, Mikhailov TA. (1993). The Effect of Fluorine-Containing Emissions on Conifers. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

"Depending on plant species and on concentration, hydrogen fluoride is 10 to 1000 times more harmful than sulfur dioxide."
- Guderian R. (1977). Air Pollution: Phytotoxicity of Acidic Gases and Its Significance in Air Pollution Control. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

"Some forms of vegetation are so sensitive to fluoride exposures that to avoid injury air concentrations must be maintained below 1 part per billion." - Hodge HC, Smith FA. (1977). Occupational fluoride exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 19: 12-39.

“As research in air pollution and plant life advanced, it became clear that of the major airborne pollutants, inorganic fluoride was clearly the most toxic.
Whereas threshold concentrations for ozone or sulfur dioxide that will produce an irreversible effect were found to be generally above 0.05 ppm for exposure periods of about 7 days, and more than double that concentration and time for nitrogen dioxide, gaseous hydrogen fluoride could cause a metabolic or physiologic change and produce lesions on leaves of the most sensitive species at 0.001 ppm (1 ppb v/v, or 0.8 ugHFm3) or less for similar durations of exposure. Only peroxyacetylnitrate, a constituent of photochemical smog, can rival this extreme phytotoxicity." - Weinstein LH. (1983). Effects of Fluorides on Plants and Plant Communities: An Overview. In: Shupe JL, Peterson HB, Leone NC, eds. (1983). Fluorides: Effects on Vegetation, Animals, and Humans. Salt Lake City, Utah: Paragon Press.

Fluoride "is the most phytotoxic of known air pollutants on the basis of atmospheric concentrations required to injure plants. This is largely due to the tendency of fluoride to accumulate in plant foliage. Leaves are extremely efficient absorbers of gaseous fluorides entering through the stomata. When once it is inside the leaf, little fluoride is translocated out of the organ by the way of the conducting tissues." - Heggestad HE, Bennett JH. (1984). Impact of Atmospheric Pollution on Agriculture. In: Treshow M, ed. (1984). Air Pollution and Plant Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

"Gaseous fluorides, such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) or silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), are among the most toxic of all pollutants important to agriculture." - McCune DC, Weinstein LH. (1971). Metabolic Effects of Atmospheric Fluorides on Plants. Environ. Pollut. 1: 169-174.

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FLUORIDE's ROLE in ACID RAIN (Fluoride Enhances Toxicity of Aluminum in Acidic Soils & Waters)

"Fluoride is a ligand which forms complexes with Al3+ in natural waters with relatively low pH, and may play a role in processes causing dead fish." - Saether OM, Andreassen BT. (1995). Amounts and sources of fluoride in precipitation over southern Norway. Atmospheric Environment. 29: 1785-1793.

"This study has provided the first documented evidence that acid rain and fluoride may act synergistically in inhibiting plant growth via soil deposition."
- Horner JM, Bell JNB. (1995). Effects of fluoride and acidity on early plant growth. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 52: 205-211.

"The results of this study support our hypothesis that the toxicity of aluminum is enhanced in acidic environment contaminated with fluoride."
- Rai LC, Husaini Y, Mallick N. (1996). Physiological and biochemical responses of Nostoc Linckia to combined effects of aluminum, fluoride and acidification. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 36: 1-12.

"Aluminum-fluoride complexes could be a very important factor... in the toxicity of aluminum to Atlantic salmon in some streams." - Hamilton SJ, Haines TA. (1995). Influence of fluoride on aluminum toxicity to Atlantic Salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52: 2432-2444.

"Our experiments suggest that the toxic aluminuim species were aluminum fluoride (AlF) compexes... Thus, AlF complexes in the natural acidic environment may be important toxic agents where AlOH complexes are not prevalent." - Clark KL, Hall RJ. (1985). Effects of elevated hydrogen ion and aluminum concentration on the survival of amphibian embryos and larvae. Can. J. Zool. 63: 116-123.

"fluoroaluminate could play a role in the mechanism of aluminum toxicity and inhibition of plant growth observed in acid soils." - Facanha AR, Meis L. (1995). Inhibition of Maize Root H+ -ATPase by Fluoride and Fluoroaluminate Complexes. Plant Physiology. 108: 241-246.

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"Airborne fluorides have caused more worldwide damage to domestic animals than any other air pollutant." - US Department of Agriculture. Air Pollutants Affecting the Performance of Domestic Animals. Agricultural Handbook No. 380. Revised. 1972. p. 109.

"Another difference between effects of fluoride and those of sulfur and chloride is that, after accumulation of fluoride in fodder plants, injury to animals can occur. Extensive economic losses to agriculture occur from fluorosis, especially of cattle, which is presently the most important disease directly traceable to air pollutant effects." - Guderian R. (1977). Air Pollution: Phytotoxicity of Acidic Gases and Its Significance in Air Pollution Control. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

"The most important problem concerning damage to animals by air pollution is, no doubt, the poisoning of domestic animals caused by fluorine in smoke, gas, or dust from various industries; industrial fluorosis in livestock is today a disorder well known by veterinarians in all industrialized countries." - Ender F. (1969). The effect of air pollution on animals. pp. 245-254. In: Air Pollution - Proceedings of the First European Congress on the Influence of Air Pollution on Plants and Animals, Wageningen, April 22 to 27, 1968. Centre for Agricultural Publishing & Documentation, Wageningen.

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"Unlike the other ‘main’ greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane) F-gases have no natural sources4. They are called ‘F-gases’ because they contain fluorine. The ‘F-gases’ are sometimes also called PIGGs, or Potent Industrial Greenhouse Gases, because they are much more powerful atmospheric heaters than carbon dioxide on a weight-for-weight basis. F-gases or PIGGs are present in the atmosphere at low levels, and in most cases have only been produced in recent years. Their emissions are however rising very rapidly and some of the gases (SF6 and PFCs) persist in the atmosphere for a very long time (as do the greenhouse gases N20 and CO2)." - Multisectorial Initiative on Potent Industrial Greenhouse Gases, 2002


VIDEO: "Industrial Fluoride Pollution: A Historical Perspective" - A video, produced by Len Greenall of British Columbia and narrated by Stanley Burke of the CBC, discussing the impact of fluoride air pollution. Produced in the 1980s, the video is now accessible online for the first time. The video is available in 3 formats:

Fluoride Pollution: News Articles

NOTE: To see the latest articles on fluoride pollution, organized by industry-type, click here

Aluminum Industry

Phosphate Industry

Oil Refineries

Coal Industry

Chemical Industry

Nuclear Industry

Steel Industry

Specialty Metal Industries

Electronics Industry

Brick Kilns



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